Guest post by Karin Shapiro
“Between July 14, 1891, and late August 1892, over a thousand Tennessee miners rose up in arms to protest the use of convict miners in the State’s coal mines. Most of the miners were white, while a majority of the convicts were black. The miners targeted three coal companies in east Tennessee: Briceville, Coal Creek, and Oliver Springs, and one in mid-Tennessee, Tracy City. The largest of the companies, Tennessee Coal, Iron, and Railroad Company (TCIR) in mid-Tennessee, leased convicts from the State of Tennessee; the smaller east Tennessee companies subleased coal convicts from the TCIR to work in their respective coal mines. The “convict Wars” (the name given by contemporaries to the rebellion) took place amidst America’s turbulent labor struggles of the 1890s, a period in which workers throughout the country challenged the waxing power of large-scale corporations, portrayed increasingly by unions as fostering unjust workplaces and perverting America’s democratic ideals…”
To read the full article, click here.
“Tennessee Convict Uprising,” by Karin Shapiro. Copyright (2007) from in Encyclopedia of US Labor and Working-Class History, edited by Eric Arnesen, pp. 1366-67 . Reproduced by permission of Taylor and Francis Group, LLC, a division of Informa plc.
Karin Shapiro is Associate Professor of the Practice, African and African American Studies, Duke University. She is the author of A New South Rebellion: The Battle Against Convict Labor in the Tennessee Coalfields, 1871-1896 (University of North Carolina Press, 1998).